AREA ARCHEOLOGICA E ANTIQUARIUM DI SABUCINA

 
Necropoli di contrada Lannari

The mountain of Sabucina is located about 10 km NE of Caltanissetta, on the orographic right of the Salso river, the ancient Imera, and rises 720 m above sea level. Together with the mountain of Capodarso, Sabucina controls the point at which the Salso valley narrows. Because of its strategic and geographical location, in ancient times it occupied a very important position controlling the routes of military and commercial penetration towards the innermost territory of this part of the island, coinciding with the area of ancient Sikania.

 

Thus, even though the historical and political conditions changed over the centuries, a series of settlements followed one another on the Sabucina site, which, with few interruptions, are chronologically placed from the Early Bronze Age (end of the 3rd - beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) to the Hellenistic Age (beginning of the 3rd century BC). The archaeological data obtained from the scientific and methodological investigation allow us to outline the various phases of life in the centre of Sabucina as follows: although the historical and political conditions changed over the centuries, a series of settlements followed one another on the site of Sabucina, which, with few interruptions, date from the Early Bronze Age (late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BC) to the Hellenistic period (early 3rd century BC). The archaeological data obtained from the scientific and methodological investigation allow us to outline the various phases of life in the centre of Sabucina as follows.

 

  • In the Early Bronze Age, at the foot of the Sabucina mountain, there were a number of villages of Castelluccio facies (23rd-15th centuries BC);
  • Between the 13th and 10th centuries B.C., on the slopes of the Sabucina hill, an extensive hut settlement of the North Pantalica facies arose. C., on the slopes of the hill of Sabucina, an extensive hut settlement of the North Pantalica facies arose, of which it has been possible to distinguish three periods of use;
  • Between the 10th and 9th centuries B.C., a modest settlement, referable to the Cassibile cultural horizon, was established on the remains of the previous capannicolous village. B.C., a modest settlement referable to the cultural horizon of Cassibile was established on the remains of the previous Capannicolous village;
  • Between the 8th and 7th centuries BC, a new settlement with rectangular houses occupied the summit and slopes of the hill. B.C., a new settlement with rectangular houses occupied the summit and the slopes of the hill and cult areas were also organised;
  • In the 6th century B.C., the site was Hellenised by the Greek colonists of Gela as part of their expansion project towards the interior of Sicily. B.C., the site was Hellenised by the Greek colonists of Gela as part of their expansionist project towards the interior of Sicily, according to a precise political and military plan, which involved the foundation of phouria (fortified centres), or real poleìs, to control the routes of commercial and military penetration. It was during this period that the fortification wall and the rooms for domestic use were built.
  • Around the middle of the 5th century BC, the centre suffered violent destruction. Like many other fortified centres, the centre was violently destroyed by Ducezio during the revolt of the Sicilian cities against the Greeks (Diod. Xl, 91);
  • In the second half of the 4th century BC, the city was rebuilt and enclosed by a new fortification, reinforced with towers. B.C., the city was rebuilt and enclosed by a new fortification, reinforced by towers;
  • During the 4th century BC, Sabucina, like many other towns on the island, was once again repopulated by Timoleon with new settlers. Sabucina, like many other towns on the island, was once again repopulated by Timoleon with new settlers; the settlement was rebuilt and the fortification wall reinforced;
  • After 310 BC the site was abandoned and the population moved to farms and villages at the foot of the hill;

 

For the Roman period, especially the Imperial period, there is evidence of the formation of farms and villas in the plain at the foot of the mountain, as suggested by the residential complex of Piano della Clesia and its necropolis in contrada Lannari, from which the marble portrait bust of Emperor Geta (206-212 AD) comes.

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